Early European designs for the umbrella sought to capture and incarcerate the offending raindrops rather than simply shedding them off. Without some application of punishment or reform, the reasoning went, the drops would simply evaporate and regather into clouds only to repeat the crime again and again. This was termed recidivism. The unit, made of iron and tar-sealed rattan weave, weighed 15 pounds when empty, over 160 pounds when full. Continue reading “Bumbershoot”